Relationship between Kidney Diseases and Nutrition


  • Aleyna Şahin Nobel Pharmaceutical Company, İstanbul, Türkiye
  • Ayşe Güneş Bayır Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Bezmialem Vakif University, İstanbul, Türkiye


Kidney, kidney diseases, diet, chronic kidney disease, protein


The kidney is one of the most complex organs in the body physiologically, structurally and metabolically. There are different diseases that we can count as kidney disease. However, chronic kidney disease is the most important. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as a progressive and irreversible loss of kidney function in which the estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decreases. CKD has long been a worldwide public health concern and poses a heavy health care and economic burden as there is information that a reduced GFR increases the risk of cardiovascular problems, hospitalization, cognitive dysfunction and overall death. Individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially those on dialysis, are prone to protein-energy wastage and this condition can be improved with different methods of nutritional support. Dietitian-guided dietary counseling is key to preventing and managing protein-energy wasting (PEW) in CKD. The major concerns associated with low-protein diets in clinical practice are the risk of PEW and adherence to dietary restrictions. Many studies evaluating low-protein diets in CKD patients have demonstrated acceptable safety, with no serious complications and low rates of PEW and malnutrition. High sodium intake has detrimental effects on blood pressure, cardiovascular health, kidney function and CKD progression. Dietary sodium restriction is strongly recommended in patients with CKD to control fluid retention, lower blood pressure, and reduce cardiovascular risk. In this review, it has been shown that nutritional interventions specific to kidney patients increase their quality of life and the positive effects of the treatment process. This review focuses on the relationship between adequate nutritional interventions and kidney diseases, and how kidney patients in treatment should be fed.


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