Impact of Faulty Lifestyle Behaviors on Male Fertility: A Narrative Review

Naina Kumar, Amit Kant Singh

Abstract


There is global rise in male infertility cases in the past few decades. With declining semen quality due to a variety of reasons, more and more researches have been directed to find the cause of such rise in male infertility. Several modifiable factors including environmental pollution, occupational exposures and faulty lifestyle habits have been observed to be associated with poor semen quality and male infertility. The present review focuses on some of the lifestyle factors including rise in sedentary life, obesity, smoking, alcohol and drug abuse, excessive use of electronic gadgets, altered sleeping habits, stress and faulty dietary habits that have affected the male reproductive health adversely leading to decreased male fertility. Methodology: The literature from 2000 till 2021 was searched from World Health Organization site and various English peer-reviewed journals using the USA National Library of Medicine (PubMed) database, regional portal of Virtual Health Library, and Scientific Electronic Library Online. The search terms used were: “Lifestyle and male fertility”, “Obesity and male infertility”, “Stress and infertility”, “Electronic gadgets and male fertility”. Conclusion: Poor lifestyle habits have significant impact on the process of spermatogenesis leading to impaired semen quality including decreased sperm concentration, count, motility, viability and increased abnormal sperm morphology, sperm DNA fragmentation, thereby affecting overall male reproductive health and fertility. However, all these factors are treatable and reversible and by just bringing a positive change in daily lifestyle many of these risk factors can be circumvented.


Keywords


Lifestyle; Infertility; Semen; Sperm; Stress.

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References


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