The Role of Nigella sativa and Its Active Component Thymoquınone in Cancer Prevention and Treatment: A Review Article

Ayşe Güneş Bayır, İrem Karakaş

Abstract


Thymoquinone is the major active component of the black seed, best known as Nigella sativa. Cancer, also known as the plague of our age, is the uncontrolled cell proliferation caused by the disruption of cell proliferation. The antitumor, antioxidant, antiproliferative and antimetastatic effects of Nigella sativa and thymoquinone have been proven by various scientific studies. Nigella sativa and thymoquinone are utilizable for potential agents in the prevention and treatment of various cancers by stimulating different pathways such as increasing the release of apoptotic molecules, suppressing the release of pro-apoptotic molecules and repairing oxidative stress. Nigella sativa extract dose-dependently inhibited cell proliferation in breast cell lines by the AKT/ PI3K pathway or induced apoptosis by increasing caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9 and p53 expression. In addition, Nigella sativa extract indicated a synergistic effect combined with radiation therapy against breast cancer. Thymoquinone suppressed tumor growth by regulating cell cycle progression in hepatocellular carcinoma. Thymoquinone showed an apoptosis-enhancing effect on colon cancer. Thymoquinone application into rats with leukemia showed a suppression effect on progression of leukemia. There is no toxic effects or mortality were observed in the range of 10-100 mg/kg thymoquinone maintaining. The median infective dose (ID50) of Nigella sativa extracts and thymoquinone are lower in oral administration compared to intraperitoneal administration. Thymoquinone was found more effective in capsule form as a nanoparticle than free form. The aim of this review is to examine the role of Nigella sativa and thymoquinone, in the prevention and treatment of cancers in the light of current literature.


Keywords


Nigella sativa; Thymoquinone; Cancers

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References


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